What is Centrifugal Pump and its Working Principles?

by norwegianprototypes
Centrifugal pumps

Arc ValveGenerally, pumps are the most important devices in any industry. But what is a pump? This is a device that transfers fluid from one point to the other. However, there are two types of pumps.

  • Centrifugal pumps
  • Positive displacement pumps

There are many different sub categories of pumps. But the two above are the main types of pumps. However, in this article I am going to focus more on the working principle of centrifugal pumps. Centrifugal pumps convey fluid by the conversion of rotational kinetic energy to the hydrodynamic energy fluid flow.

Background Information of Centrifugal Pump

Centrifugal pump

Centrifugal pump

The invention of centrifugal pumps was done by Denis Papin a Physicist in 1689. The centrifugal pump is one of the most used pump in the world currently due to the following reasons.

  • Cheap to construct
  • Strong
  • Delivers fluids faster than other pumps
  • Simple

But centrifugal pumps need to have protection when a fluid is flowing. An Arc Valve is best protection for centrifugal pumps. The arc valve protects the centrifugal pump from cavitation damage and overheating. Unlike other pumps for centrifugal pumps when the radius of the impeller is high the faster the transportation of fluids.

Types of Centrifugal Pumps

Like said before there are different types of centrifugal pumps. They include:

  • Vertical centrifugal pump
  • Froth pump
  • Multistage centrifugal pumps

Vertical Centrifugal Pumps

Also known as cantilever pumps this is a type of centrifugal pumps. The vertical pump is used in parts washer. A device used to remove contaminants like

  • Carbon
  • Ink paint
  • Oil
  • Grease
  • Metal chips

And other types from a workpiece. This pump has a unique shaft and bearing support that allows the volute to hang in the sump while the bearing is outside the sump.

Froth Pumps

This pump is mostly used in the mining industries. This pump is used to separate minerals from sand and clays. Froth pump has air that tends to block the pump. This type o centrifugal pump is constructed in a way that it cannot block when froth is conveyed through it.

Multistage Centrifugal Pumps

Centrifugal pump

Centrifugal pump

This type of centrifugal pumps contains two or more impellers. In most cases the impellers are attached on the same shaft for efficiency. This pump increases the pressure which the fluid is discharged out from the pump. In addition, the impellers are connected in parallel. Multistage centrifugal pumps are mostly used in the boiler section of sugar industry. Specifically, as the boiler feedwater pump.

Uses of Centrifugal Pumps

There are many uses of this item. They include:

  • They are used to transport water over a wide region due to its high pressure
  • Used in fire sprinkler systems
  • Used to circulate hot water
  • Used for drainage
  • Used for air conditioning systems


There are many applications of centrifugal pumps. However, I cannot cover all of them. But you need to know it has vast application. They are used in many industries. Apart from its applications they also have different classifications. For example, there are centrifugal pumps classified due to impeller design. So, when you want a centrifugal pump ensure you have in depth knowledge about them.

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